The agreement, valid for three years, includes recognition of the union as an exclusive bargaining body, leave for trade union activities, paternity leave, ikea goods rebate, child care leave and personal hospitalization. Nevertheless, the components and mechanism of the geographic labour market correspond to those of the non-spatial model. The labour supply offers their availability for work and skills and targets high wages, job security and career opportunities. The demand for labour, i.e. businessmen, entrepreneurs, public bodies and representatives of all kinds of associations, aspires to this willingness to work and specific qualifications and strives, for cost reasons, to pay low wages in return, while promising job security and career opportunities to some employees. This research process is accompanied, on both sides, by organizations that, through collective agreements, have created framework conditions that significantly shorten the negotiation process. For most workers, collective agreements, minimum wages and labour laws narrowly limit the individual bargaining margin. Formal changes since 1990 retain prices (although they have lost most of their social functions and are increasingly recovered). However, they add at least three other regulatory flows: (a) agreements (registered) with unions with a single employer; (b) agreements (registered) with a single employer with a group of workers organized outside the unions; and (c) registered individual contracts.
These additional regulatory flows are based on individual companies and have introduced an essential element of decentralisation – and an essential element of an improved employer force – into the regulatory system. The Labor government sponsored the addition of the first two flows, arguing that they were a new system of enterprise bargaining to complement traditional rewards. In its first Workplace Relations and Other Legislation Amendment Act of 1996, the coalition government revised and strengthened the provisions on non-union agreements and introduced the third stream of individual contracts registered under the Title Australian Workplace Agreements (AWAs). The 2005 labour election laws consolidate this framework and aim to expand the electricity benefiting from individual registered agreements. In addition, it uses corporate power in the Constitution to extend the federal system to the detriment of state systems. This expands the scope of the federal system to approximately 80 per cent of all employees and supersedes some of the more generous provisions and procedures that are available through government procurement and state agreements and laws. Although no trend in higher education is universal, there are a number of topics that come up regularly in every global survey of collective bargaining. In many countries, basic labour rights are still lacking, in others civil society is underdeveloped or the state is so hostile that higher education workers do not have effective collective representation.