The Indian scientist Happymon Jacob suggested in a recent remarkable study that local factors are the main variable of interest. Jacob wrote that “local military factors on the Indo-Pakistan border are in fact responsible for the repeated failure of the 2003 agreement. In other words, OAFs are generally not planned, controlled or evacuated by military or higher political institutions, but are driven by dynamics on the front lines. Indeed, most of the Pakistani interlocutors interviewed for this article agree that local commanders have some autonomy in determining their answers and that when a new postal officer takes over, the other side usually tests the newcomer with periodic fire. The construction of new bunkers or the maintenance of old bunkers also offer means of firing.24 But the use of mortars – which has been increasingly common in recent years – could not be launched on the ground without political authorization25, 26 54 Last January, for example, Pakistan`s Ministry of Foreign Affairs called on the Indian High Commissioner “to protest against the protests that result from a ceasefire”. See Naveed Siddiqui, “Pakistan Lodges Protest With India Over Civilian Casualties in Cross-Border Firing,” Dawn, January 21, 2018, www.dawn.com/news/1384344. The ceasefire not only helped implement non-military CBMs such as a cross-LoC bus service and trade, but was also a great relief for tens of thousands of people living along the LoC. However, over the past nine months, calm has been shaken by a series of actions by both sides. The last was the killing of five Indian soldiers in the Poonch area on 5 August. The incident opened up a political debate on whether cooperation with Islamabad should be appropriate at this stage. In addition to the “highly charged” television studios, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the party under the supervision of which the peace initiative was taken in 2003, has its swords to nail the government of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) for its “weak and weak” policy towards Pakistan.
Violating The Ceasefire Agreement
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