The following are marked with possible agreement area: For example, suppose Dave wants to sell his mountain bike and equipment for $700 to buy new skis and ski equipment. Suzy wants to buy the bike and equipment for $400 and can`t go any higher. Dave and Suzy did not reach ZOPA; they are in a negative negotiating zone. Avoiding these two dangers – either accepting an below-average deal or moving away from an important deal – starts with thorough preparation for negotiations, including a precise understanding of the area of a possible agreement or ZOPA. A ZOPA exists when there is an overlap between the booking price of each part (final result). A negative trading area is when there is no overlap. With a negative negotiating zone, both sides can (and should) leave. A negative trading area can be overcome by “widening the pie”. In inclusive negotiations on a variety of issues and interests, parties who combine their interests to create value come to a much more rewarding agreement. Behind each position, there are usually more common interests than contradictory.  Negotiations are complex, with many factors contributing to the bottom line, but they don`t have to be a tortuous experience. Good preparation and a solid understanding of key trading concepts and strategies can help you create maximum value in the deals you make. Let`s say your research shows that the TV you want is pretty new to the market.
Further research into your local business will lead you to believe that it is willing to go as low as the price of Amazon.com $900. Now you have a general idea of the ZOPA or the possible agreement area: between $900 (your . Read more Successful negotiations depend on the establishment of a ZOPA understood by both parties. This requires both sides to discuss and explain their own interests and values, as well as their “end result” – the boundaries of their zone beyond which they cannot agree. Ideally, this should be done early in the negotiation process. The buyer, on the other hand, wants to pay the lowest possible amount, but can consider a higher amount, which he may also be willing to pay. The maximum amount they are willing to pay is also known as the buyer`s “booking price” or “departure” from the point of transaction. Take, for example, the sale of a used car. The buyer hopes to buy a vehicle at a price between $2,500 and $3,000. The seller is ready to sell for a price between $2,750 and $3,250. In this scenario, there is a positive trading area between $2,750 and $3,000, where the conditions of both the buyer and seller can be met. A negotiator should always start from the beginning of his preparations with the ZOPA of both parties and constantly refine and adjust these figures throughout the process.
For each interest, there are often several possible solutions that could satisfy it.  There is a Possible Area of Agreement (ZOPA) when there is a potential agreement that would benefit both parties more than their alternative options. For example, if Fred wants to buy a used car for $5,000 or less, and Mary wants to sell one for $4,500, these two have a ZOPA. But if Mary doesn`t go below $7,000 and Fred doesn`t go above $5,000, they don`t have a possible area of agreement. The type of ZOPA depends on the type of trading.  In a distributive (competitive) negotiation, where participants try to share a “solid cake”, it is more difficult to find mutually acceptable solutions because both parties want to claim as much cake as possible. .